German-occupied EuropeConcentration and extermination camps, and ghettos. Territories of the Axis Powers are in olive green.
Grossaktion Warsaw The mass deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto began on 22 July with the first shipment of 6, people. The gas chambers started operation the following morning. No other trains were allowed to stop at the Treblinka station.
An average of German military trains were passing through every 24 hours on top of internal traffic already in An earlier signboard with directions was removed because it was clearly insufficient. The provisions included such items as smoked mutton, speciality breads, wine, cheese, fruit, tea, coffee, and sweets.
Auschwitz-Birkenau "processed" Jews from almost every other country in Europe. All were ordered to tie their shoes together and strip. Some kept their own towels. Women had their hair cut off; therefore, it took longer to prepare them for the gas chambers than men.
Like the Jews, the Romani were first rounded up and sent to the ghettos; at a conference on 30 January it was decided that all 30, Romani living in Germany proper were to be deported to former Polish territory. As with the Jews, most Romani who went to Treblinka died in the gas chambers, although some were shot.
There were no known Romani escapees or survivors from Treblinka. During this time, the women and children could hear the sounds of suffering from inside the chambers, and they became aware of what awaited them, which caused panic, distress, and even involuntary defecation.
In a hour workday, 12, to 15, people were killed. They had double walls insulated by earth packed down in between. The interior walls and ceilings were lined with roofing paper. The floors were covered with tin-plated sheet metal, the same material used for the roof.
Solid wooden doors were insulated with rubber and bolted from the outside by heavy cross-bars. After about 20 minutes the bodies were removed by dozens of Sonderkommandos, placed onto carts and wheeled away. Dead mothers embraced the bodies of their children.
It is a flat grave marker constructed of crushed and cemented black basalt symbolising burnt charcoal. The actual human ashes were mixed with sand and spread over 22, square metressquare feet. The bodies of the 10, Polish officers executed by the NKVD were well preserved despite their long burial.
The bodies were placed on rails over wood, splashed with petrol, and burned. It was a harrowing sight, according to Jankiel Wiernik, with the bellies of pregnant women exploding from boiling amniotic fluid. The pyres operated 24 hours a day.
Once the system had been perfected, 10,—12, bodies at a time could be incinerated. It is constructed from melted basalt and has a concrete foundation. It is a symbolic grave,  as the Nazis spread the actual human ashes, mixed with sand, over 22, square metressquare feet.
The guards were mainly ethnic German Volksdeutsche from the east and Ukrainians,   with some Russians, TatarsMoldovans, Latvians, and Central Asiansall of whom had served in the Red Army.
At the Camp 2 Auffanglager receiving area each squad had a different coloured triangle. The blue unit Kommando Blau managed the rail ramp and unlocked the freight wagons. They met the new arrivals, carried out people who had died en route, removed bundles, and cleaned the wagon floors.
The red unit Kommando Rotwhich was the largest squad, unpacked and sorted the belongings of victims after they had been "processed". The Goldjuden unit "gold Jews" collected and counted banknotes and evaluated the gold and jewellery.
For the first six months they took the corpses away for burial after gold teeth had been extracted. Once cremation began in early they took the corpses to the pits, refuelled the pyres, crushed the remaining bones with mallets, and collected the ashes for disposal.
They were divided into three sets of twenty at the layover yard. Each set was processed within the first two hours of backing onto the ramp, and was then made ready by the Sonderkommandos to be exchanged for the next set of twenty wagons.
Only the strongest men were selected from new arrivals daily to obtain the necessary replacements. Another work detail was responsible for cleaning the common areas. The Camp 1 Wohnlager residential compound contained barracks for about Sonderkommandos which, when combined with the Totenjuden living across from the gas chambers, brought their grand total to roughly one thousand at a time.A chronicle of the Nazi persecution of the Jews.
January 30, - Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany a. On this day in , a Warsaw underground newspaper, the Liberty Brigade, makes public the news of the gassing of tens of thousands of Jews at Chelmno, a Nazi-operated death camp in Poland.
17 March — Holocaust: the Nazi German extermination camp Bełżec opens in occupied Poland about 1 km south of the local railroad station of Bełżec in the Lublin district of the General Government.
Between March and December , at least , people were killed there. Timeline: PRE-WAR and labor camps before they are sent to extermination camps. Approximately million Jews die in the camps. The German air force cannot keep up. Apr 18, · A closely held secret of the Allied forces in WWII was that news of the Nazi death camps in Poland reached the West months after they had begun to carry out the “final solution.”.
The London Sunday Times runs but does not highlight a news item about the Nazi executions of , Romanian Jews. German headquarters at Arras, France, is attacked by the French Resistance.
to the Auschwitz extermination camp. August Throughout Europe, .