The Psychology of Persuasion: The class then selects a social problem of concern and develops a "social change project" that applies social influence principles to creatively and effectively address the problem. These projects served to show students how social influence techniques can be used as prosocial influence techniques.
2 EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES ON PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR JEFFRY A. SIMPSON AND LANE BECKES It has often been assumed that animals were in the first place rendered. Rather than selfish egoists, all kinds of prosocial behaviors begin in infancy-helping, sharing, informing, etc. Though these behaviors may result from intensive early socialization, research suggests that infants and toddlers are internally, rather than externally, motivated to be prosocial. The ethics of some forms of behaviour modification (such as the token economy) and certain aspects of applied behaviour analysis (especially the use of punishment with vulnerable individuals) have been seriously questioned (Chapters 45 and 48).
Rat Save Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents. Species of rats are found throughout the order Rodentia, but stereotypical rats are found in the genus Rattus. Other rat genera include Neotoma pack ratsBandicota bandicoot rats and Dipodomys kangaroo rats. Rats are typically distinguished from mice by their size.
Generally, when someone discovers a large muroid rodent, its common name includes the term rat, while if it is smaller, its name includes the term mouse. The common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. In other words, rat is not a scientific term; if it were, all rats would belong to the genus Rattus.
Species and description A rat by a riverbank A rat in a city street The best-known rat species are the black rat Rattus rattus and the brown rat Rattus norvegicus. This group, generally known as the Old World rats or true rats, originated in Asia. Rats are bigger than most Old World micewhich are their relatives, but seldom weigh over grams 1.
Examples include the North American pack ratsa number of species loosely called kangaroo ratsand others.
Rats such as the bandicoot rat Bandicota bengalensis are murine rodents related to true rats but are not members of the genus Rattus. Male rats are called bucks; unmated females, does, pregnant or parent females, dams; and infants, kittens or pups.
A group of rats is referred to as a mischief. They may cause substantial food losses, especially in developing countries. Many species of rats are island endemicssome of which have become endangered due to habitat loss or competition with the brown, black, or Polynesian rat.
Wild rodents, including rats, can carry many different zoonotic pathogens, such as LeptospiraToxoplasma gondiiand Campylobacter. Another zoonotic disease linked to the rat is foot-and-mouth disease.
Rodent tails—particularly in rat models—have been implicated with a thermoregulation function that follows from its anatomical construction. This particular tail morphology is evident across the family Muridae, in contrast to the bushier tails of Sciuridaethe squirrel family.
The tail is hairless and thin skinned but highly vascularized, thus allowing for efficient countercurrent heat exchange with the environment. The high muscular and connective tissue densities of the tail, along with ample muscle attachment sites along its plentiful caudal vertebraefacilitate specific proprioceptive senses to help orient the rodent in a three-dimensional environment.
Lastly, murids have evolved a unique defense mechanism termed degloving that allows for escape from predation through the loss of the outermost integumentary layer on the tail.
However, this mechanism is associated with multiple pathologies that have been the subject of investigation. Multiple studies have explored the thermoregulatory capacity of rodent tails by subjecting test organisms to varying levels of physical activity and quantifying heat conduction via the animals' tails.
One study demonstrated a significant disparity in heat dissipation from a rat's tail relative to its abdomen.Prosocial behaviour was significantly correlated with ratings of the emotional state of the protagonist but not with own emotional state, suggesting that empathic concern rather than personal distress was the primary influence on prosocial behaviour.
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Based on his analysis of the trial transcript, Levine concluded that the nonintervention had little or nothing to do with the number of bystanders present, or diffusion of responsibility. For example, William Lawless was put in charge of waste disposal at the Savannah River reactor, even.
Rather than selfish egoists, all kinds of prosocial behaviors begin in infancy-helping, sharing, informing, etc. Though these behaviors may result from intensive early socialization, research suggests that infants and toddlers are internally, rather than externally, motivated to be prosocial.
The ethics of some forms of behaviour modification (such as the token economy) and certain aspects of applied behaviour analysis (especially the use of punishment with vulnerable individuals) have been seriously questioned (Chapters 45 and 48).
In approaching patients with psychosis it has tended to be more circumspect about the illness itself. Initial work on behaviour modification was neutral as to whether the institutionalised patterns of passive behaviour were the result of disease or social influence.