Since marks of punctuation ordinarily are used in written correspondence and their omission may affect the sense of your communication, care must be exercised in the construction of a message from which they are to be excluded. If you do not intend to stipulate that marks of punctuation be transmitted, write your message without punctuation and read it carefully to make sure that it is not ambiguous. If it seems impossible to convey your meaning clearly without the use of punctuation, use may be made of the celebrated word "stop," which is known the world over as the official telegraphic or cable word for "period.
Format for the paper Edit your paper! A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience.
The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance" Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper.
For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts.
They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth. Your abstract should be one paragraph, of words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words.
Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.
Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough.
End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.
If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.
Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate.
If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. Use appropriate methods of showing data.
For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary.
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How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis?
Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture?
End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.
A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and.
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